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The development of stainless steel
Born in 1910 ~ 1914 groups respectively of martensite and ferrite and austenite stainless steel, from the point of chemical composition, mainly belong to Fe Cr and Fe - Cr - Ni two big system. From the end of world war I to the end of world war ii in nearly 30 years (1919-1945). With the development of various industry, stainless steel in order to adapt to the working conditions and the differentiation, namely in the original system of three kinds of organization form, on the basis of through increasing or decreasing carbon content and add a variety of other alloying elements and spawned many new types of stainless steel. From the end of the second big station until now more than 30 years, mainly in order to adapt to decay resistance to sea water or salt candle, Y X-ray and neutron absorption and development needs, such as ultra-high strength, nickel saving the pitting corrosion resistance of stainless steel, atomic energy industry with stainless steel and precipitation hardening stainless steel and nickel manganese nitrogen generation of stainless steel.
In recent years. In order to solve the intergranular corrosion of austenitic stainless steel candle and stress corrosion problems, and has developed ultra-low carbon stainless steel respectively, and the ultra pure ferritic stainless steel. At present, has been on the market of stainless steel varieties has reached more than 230, often use there are about 50 species, about 80% is austenitic stainless steel (18 chrome - nickel 8) derivatives, and the remaining 20% is composed of 13 chrome steel evolution. On the main research and development of stainless steel is concentrated in two aspects:
In pieces the first aspect is to improve the corrosion resistance of steel, including 8 for 18 - steel intergranular corrosion research of candle, not only developed the steel grade, puts forward a method to solve the problem of process. Also contributed to the studies of the passivation of stainless steel and the corrosion mechanism.
In pieces the second aspect is the development of high strength stainless steel (i.e., precipitation hardening stainless steel), and this kind of steel is the second world war with the progress of the aviation, aerospace and rocket technology and developed. Half of austenitic precipitation-hardening stainless steel has excellent process performance (17-7 ph class), after solid solution treatment processing forming extremely easily, and the subsequent strengthening heat treatment (aging) deformation is small, the temperature is not high in the United States more than the steel used in aircraft structure, and has set up a mass production, countries have similar steel put into use.
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